Democratization in Morocco: Decentralization or Redistribution of Power?

By Sidi El Baroudi

Informal rules in political contexts are bound to be confusing, especially when considering institutions within the context of a democratizing country. Let’s take the Moroccan monarchy as an example. Moroccan culture specifically has a rich history concerning informal rules dominating institutions, exemplified by Douglas North’s frequent mentioning of the informality surrounding North African bazars called suqs in his book Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. As defined by Helmke and Levitsky, informal institutions are “socially shared rules, usually unwritten, that are created, communicated, and enforced outside of officially sanctioned channels”. Even though this detailed definition provides a versatile starting point for balanced discussions on informal institutions, it is still vague enough to be confusing. Cases in which informal rules are created by the elimination of written formal rules, show a shortcoming in the abovementioned definition.

For example, constitutional reforms resulting from the Arab Spring forced Moroccan King Mohammed VI (M6) to give the democratically chosen representatives in the cabinet more power. Nevertheless, these politicians feel the urge to shy away from sensitive topics that technically fall under their responsibility since the reforms. This political “anxiety” for sensitive matters that used to fall under monarchical rule is exemplified in the case of royal taxi permits in the kingdom. Regulation of the taxi market was assigned to the ministry of transport after the constitutional reforms. However, elected politicians did not feel confident enough to use their newly acquired constitutional rights and amend the royal dominance – the king decides who gets how many taxi licenses – in this market.

So, is the rule underwriting royal dominance socially shared and unwritten? Yes! But, is it also created and communicated outside official channels? No. In fact, just a few years ago it was an official rule. This example shows that this definition of informal rules does not apply to characteristic processes of democratization, in which officially created undemocratic rules persist after their abolishment.

Was Slavery A European Invention?

By Sidi Mohammed

Was slavery a European invention? This was one of the core questions that triggered my mind and was “answered” in the readings we had assigned for our fourth seminar. The readings all somewhat offered the same answer: Islamic slavery. Europeans did not invent slavery, because Islamic empires already got involved in the slave trade in the mid-1400s, which seems to answer the question, but not fully to my satisfaction. In chapter 1 of his Transformations in Slavery, Lovejoy raises that before the mid-1400s “the Islamic world was virtually the only external influence on the political economy of Africa.” Nunn and Acemoglu & Robinson also “ignore” slavery’s ancient history of before the 1400s. Most people who are interested in religious history will know the story of Moses in Exodus 4, in which he managed to rescue the Israelites from slavery under the rule of the Pharaoh of Egypt. Academic articles discussing the ancient presence of slavery seem to be scarce, the recognition of slavery’s long presence in Western civilization – from the times of ancient Mesopotamia – still gets acknowledged. The depiction of “Islamic slavery” as the starting point of slavery in general does not seem to do justice to the long history slavery has in the Western world. An important nuancing of the abovementioned criticism surely denies the deliberate ignorance of slavery’s ancient history, as the readings that were discussed during seminar 4 were merely focussing on the institutional impacts of “African slavery” in specific. Looking at the context of slave trade in Africa, there does not seem to be a convincing incentive to involve ancient slavery in the analysis. Nevertheless, “Islamic slavery” is an answer for the question posed in the title, especially when looking at path dependence and the possible impact of ancient slavery on “Islamic slavery”.